Jose de Ribera
Spanish Painter and Print engraver , 1591-1652
Information concerning the life and personality of Jusepe de Ribera is sparse. He was born the son of a shoemaker in Jetiva, Valencia Province. He appears to have gone to the city of Valencia while still a boy, but nothing is known of his possible artistic training there. As an adolescent, he traveled to Italy and spent time in Lombardy. Next he was in Parma, from which, it is said, he was driven by the contentious jealousy of local artists. He located himself in Rome until an accumulation of debts forced him to flee. Finally he settled in Naples, where in 1616 he married Caterina Azzolino, the daughter of a painter, by whom he had seven children between the years 1627 and 1636. The Academy of St. Luke in Rome elected Ribera to membership in 1625, and 6 years later the Pope conferred upon him the Order of Christ. It is understandably speculated that Ribera revisited Rome for these events. Being sought after in Naples by the Church and the various Spanish viceroys who ruled there in the name of the Spanish monarchy, he dismissed the idea of returning to his homeland. He was quoted as saying that he was honored and well paid in Naples and that Spain was a cruel stepmother to its own children and a compassionate mother to foreigners. Nevertheless, he generally added his nationality when he signed his works. This practice inspired the Italians to nickname him "the Little Spaniard" (Lo Spagnoletto). The last decade of Ribera's life was one of personal struggle. He suffered from failing health, the taunts of other artists that his fame was "extinct," and difficulty in collecting payments due him. Nevertheless, he kept it from being a tragic defeat by continuing to paint until the very year of his death in Naples. Actually, he was the victim of the local politics and finances. Naples was in the throes of a severe economic depression for which the foreign rulers, the patrons of Ribera, were naturally blamed, and the desperate citizenry was rioting in the streets. It is significant that Ribera continued to receive commissions in such a time, even if there was a dearth of payments. Ribera was inventive in subject matter, ranging through visionary spectacles, biblical themes, genre, portraits, mythological subjects, and portraits of ascetics and penitents. Related Paintings of Jose de Ribera :. | Hl. Andreas, Apostel | Hl. Hieronymus, San Jeronimo | Mystische Hochzeit der Hl. Karharina von Alexandrien, Detail | Die Bubende Hl. Maria Magdalena als Thais, Fragment | Martyrium des Hl. Andreas |
Related Artists:Pieter Bruegel
Greatest Netherlandish painter of the 16th century. Not much is known of his early life, but in 1551 he set off for Italy, where he produced his earliest signed painting, Landscape with Christ and the Apostles at the Sea of Tiberias (c. 1553). Returning to Flanders in 1555, he achieved some fame with a series of satirical, moralizing prints in the style of Hiëronymus Bosch, commissioned by an Antwerp engraver. He is best known for his paintings of Netherlandish proverbs, seasonal landscapes, and realistic views of peasant life and folklore, but he also took a novel approach to religious subject matter, portraying biblical events in panoramic scenes, often viewed from above. He had many important patrons; most of his paintings were commissioned by collectors. In addition to many drawings and engravings, about 40 authenticated paintings from his enormous output have survived.Ernest Meissonier
Lyons 1815 - Paris 1891.
French Academic Painter, 1815-1891.
Lyons 1815 - Paris 1891. French Academic Painter, 1815-1891. French genre and military painter. His study of the Dutch masters was evident in his first Salon-exhibited painting, A Visit to the Burgomaster (1834). His small genre paintings are meticulous as to furnishings and costumes. Among Meissonier's battle scenes, chiefly of the Napoleonic Wars, are Napoleon I with His Staff (Louvre) and Friedland, 1807 (Metropolitan Mus.). Johann Christoph Rincklake
Johann Christoph Rincklake (1764-1813).
Date of birth and death 19 October 1764(1764-10-19) and 19 June 1813(1813-06-19) .
Location of birth and death, Harsewinkel and Munster.